Beech Grove Traction

1906. A rural station stop on the Big Four Railroad, originally called Ingalls (or Ingallston), has just been incorporated as a shop town for the same Big Four Railroad. It’s official name at this point became Beech Grove. The new town that grew from the building of the railroad shops, covered in my blog entry “Beech Grove,” found itself barely accessible by anything other than the very railroad that built it. It wouldn’t be long until that would change.

First, the town was actually accessible by route of an old toll road that had been built to reach the farm of a local resident, a Mr. Churchman. That road, for the longest time, had been called the Churchman Pike, even after the county bought it back from the toll road company. The Churchman Pike connected to the town via what would become Albany Street, a survey section line that also acts as the separator between all of the southern townships and the central townships in Marion County. Dirt roads along the other survey lines – which would later become Troy and Emerson Avenues – also led to the area that would become Beech Grove. The old train station, Ingalls or Beech Grove, was at the survey line (Emerson Avenue) and the railroad track. Today, that would be under the Emerson Avenue bridge over the railroad.

But it wouldn’t be long before another method of transportation would make its presence known, and try to work its way into the railroad city. Electric Traction, also known as the interurban, had made its way into Indianapolis, officially, with the opening of the Greenwood line on 1 January 1900. After that, companies started popping up all over the United States. And Indianapolis became a hub for the new transportation form.

But this would create a problem. Steam railroads, which all standard railroads were called at the time, saw the new Traction companies as direct competition. Even though the gauge (width between the tracks) was the same on both, traffic interchange was one of those things that the steam roads were going to keep to an absolute minimum. And since the Traction companies specialized in moving people, this was even more reason for the steam roads to dislike the interurbans.

And now someone wants to add an interurban route to a town BUILT by the railroad? The short answer…yes. The reason for this was actually based in the nature of the steam railroad itself. Passenger trains, taking people from Beech Grove to downtown Indianapolis, weren’t scheduled at very convenient times for citizens of the new town. While the company that had invested in, and created, the town, the Beech Grove Improvement Company, tried running its own special trains to downtown Indianapolis, it was at the whim of the very busy Big Four line from Indianapolis to Cincinnati. In comes the planners of the electric traction.

It started in 1909. A company called the Shore Line Traction Company applied for a franchise to run a traction line from the Indianapolis city limits (point unknown) to Beech Grove. Louis McMains, a real estate agent, put in the petition to the County Commissioners. In October 1909, the petition asked that the Shore Line Traction Company be allowed to use the Churchman Pike from the city limits near Keystone and Churchman Avenues to the corporation limit of Beech Grove. It also asked for some straightening work along the road, and the right of way be widened by 27 feet (adding 13.5 feet on each side). “The petition signifies that the property owners on each side of the pike are willing to part with the necessary land to widen the road.” (Source: Indianapolis News, 14 October 1909)

The county had problems with the widening…especially when it came to the Churchman Pike bridge over Bean Creek (between Walker and Southern Avenues today). The bridge had been in disrepair for years, listed as such as early as 1891. Whether the bridge had been repaired or replaced at this point is unknown. Suffice it to say, the county wasn’t really likely to spend money to replace the bridge.

The petition mentioned that the plan for the Churchman Pike is to widen it to 66 feet, allowing two tracks to be built in the center, with only one track being built to start the company. The new company already had a franchise in hand for the route inside Beech Grove itself.

The Shore Line Traction Company found itself trying to come up with a new route to Beech Grove when the county balked at the Bean Creek bridge. With that, the company was not heard from again.

But shortly after the above petition was filed, a new company would be incorporated – the Beech Grove Traction Company. This company was officially started on 30 December 1909. It had the same goal as the Shore Line Transit Company – connect Beech Grove and downtown Indianapolis.

There was more progress with the Beech Grove Traction than there was with Shore Line. The Indianapolis News of 2 April 1910 reported that the Beech Grove company had elected its corporate officers and announced that grading work would begin soon on the line. Rails, ties and cars had already been ordered. Work on the new Churchman Pike bridge over Bean Creek had begun on 28 March 1910. Officials of the traction company were negotiating with the Indianapolis Traction and Terminal Company “for use of the tracks of the latter company in Shelby Street and Virginia Avenue for entrance to the business district.”

The franchise rights had been awarded by Marion County and the town of Beech Grove. When construction was to begin in April, the company had no agreement with the city of Indianapolis about using the city street railway tracks to enter the downtown area. This agreement would not have been reached until September 1910. This caused construction to be delayed until November 1910.

Even before the track was complete, the first train run over part of the line happened on 20 March 1911. Seven days later, regular service began. The Beech Grove end of the line was on what became Garstang Avenue east of First (Emerson) Avenue. The track then ran north on First Avenue to Main Street. Following Main Street west, it turned north on 17th Avenue (Sherman Drive) for one block, to turn northwest on Churchman Pike (Avenue). The route then turned west on LeGrande Avenue to connect to the city street railway system at Shelby Street.

1917 Map of the route of the Beech Grove Traction Company.

At first, the company found itself very popular. The Beech Grove Traction only owned, at the start, four cars to travel between the two ends. But there were so many people that wanted to use the new train that the company found itself running trains every 40 minutes from daybreak to midnight. The time table showed that first car left for Indianapolis at 0530, with the first car from Indianapolis arriving at 0610. A nickel would get a rider from Beech Grove to Shelby Street and LeGrande. A dime would get you all the way to the Traction Terminal.

Now, one might ask about why someone would get off the interurban at Shelby Street. Rightly so. But a trip to Garfield Park would require a change to a city street car. Or, one could catch the interurban to Greenwood, Franklin, Columbus and even Louisville at the end of the city Shelby Street line…which was at the Greenwood Line Stop 1 at Perry Street, south of Troy Avenue, on Shelby Street.

But business along the Beech Grove Traction line would start falling off rather quickly. The Big Four, with the completion of the traction line, stopped issuing passes to employees and families to ride the steam train. This made the interurban the best way to get to downtown Indianapolis. In the early days, most traffic was Big Four shop employees coming to and from work from their homes in Indianapolis. Due to the success of the town of Beech Grove, these employees were moving to the town. This caused a drop in traffic on the traction line. And due to shops being built along Main Street, the traffic drop wasn’t made up for in shopping trips to the stores of downtown Indianapolis.

By 1914, an average of 24 round trips ran each day along the line, with a schedule of 1 hour 10 minutes between trains. That had slowed down to 16 round trips a day by March 1916. And, as is typical of Indiana railroads of the time, the Beech Grove Traction Company found itself falling into receivership in December 1917, caused by increased costs without the subsequent increase in revenue.

Lawsuits were filed. Newspapers reported that the traction line wouldn’t be necessary for much longer, since with the improvement of city streets, bus service between Beech Grove and Indianapolis would replace the electric traction line. In a strange twist of fate, the operator of the bus competition to the Beech Grove Traction ceased his bus company and took over the traction line as railway superintendent. Fortunes improved…for the time being.

One of the things that the line started was carrying mail from the Fountain Square post office to the post office in Beech Grove. This started shortly after completion of the line until it was discontinued in the late 1920s.

The little line lumbered on for almost two decades after receivership…barely. It was recommended in November 1923 that the line be closed and sold. Revenues increased with the permission given to raise fares. But the company found itself sold to make up $30,000 in debt due to maintenance and new rolling stock in 1925. The new buyer made a condition – if a bus line was approved, the sale would be null and void, and the line would be junked. Again, lawsuits were filed, and a bus line was granted an injunction to operate. And the bus company was purchased by the traction line…and both were operated at the same time. It found itself teetering financially, yet still managing to survive.

The Great Depression hurt the line, just like it did almost everything else at the time. But it managed to survive…for a while. The Public Service Commission of Indiana, on 7 January 1937, officially told the company that it was to close the line. Indianapolis Railways, the power provider for the line, complained to the PSCI that Beech Grove Traction owed in the neighborhood of $20,000 for power…which Indianapolis Railways turned off at 0100 on 8 January 1937. And hence, the end of the Beech Grove Traction line. Some people hadn’t seen the notices about the end of service, and were waiting at stops on a cold 8 January morning.

The last vestiges of the traction company would last until 21 August 1973. The company’s car barn, at First and Garstang, would last until demolition started that day.

The Big Four Railway

When considering the history of Indiana railroads, especially those connecting to Indianapolis, there were basically two railroad companies that ruled the roost for the first three-quarters of the 20th Century*. One was discussed in a previous entry, the Pennsylvania Railroad and its previous companies. The other being the New York Central System. And one of the major components of the NYC was the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railway, known collectively as the Big Four.

When the Big Four was created in 1889, the one city left out of the name of the railroad was the one that was in every one of the companies that merged to create it: Indianapolis. On 30 June 1889, the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway, the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railway and the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway were consolidated to create the Big Four. When it was created, the Big Four was headquartered in Cincinnati (according to the Interstate Commerce Commission). By 1930, the headquarters had moved to Indianapolis. It was also in 1930 when the Big Four ceased being operated as a separate company from its majority stock holder, the New York Central.

There were 45 company transitions that created the final product. Some of these companies did very little to build the road in any way.

One of the major lines into Indianapolis, for instance, is still called the “B” line, short for the Indianapolis & Bellefontaine Railroad. The I&B started life chartered as the Pendleton & Indianapolis Railroad on 15 January 1846. By 1851, when the “B” line’s 110 miles were built in Indiana, the railroad had already changed its name to “Indianapolis, Pittsburgh & Cleveland Railroad.” The IP&C merged with several Ohio only routes to become the constituent Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway.

Another constituent company of the Big Four was the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway. This line was chartered in 1867. The entire 72 miles of main line, from Indianapolis to Terre Haute, was built by the St. Louis & Indianapolis Railroad in 1870. This route could have led to an entire different history, as part owner of the StL&I was none other than Pennsylvania Railroad interests. The PLWPE was concerned because the Terre Haute & Indianapolis wasn’t falling completely into their sphere of influence. This created problems since the line leading from Terre Haute to East St. Louis was already pretty much a PLWPE. The StL&I was thought to be able to alleviate any of those concerns. When the Vandalia was created, including the TH&I, those concerns lessened, and the PL got out of the StL&I.

The major constituent company of the Big Four, as far as Indiana is concerned, was the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railway. Unlike other companies, this one consisted of 153 miles of main line track in Indiana. This company had another 21 miles in Ohio to connect to Cincinnati.

60 miles of that track was built in 1852 by the Lafayette and Indianapolis Railroad. The L&I, and its successors, had changed quite a bit before Conrail abandoned it. This is the track where the Purdue crash occurred on 31 October 1903. (See the blog entries https://intransporthistory.home.blog/2019/03/04/1903-big-four-special-crash-kills-15-purdue-footballers/ and https://intransporthistory.home.blog/2019/03/04/extra-big-four-purdue-special-crash/ for details.)

The rest of the company’s tracks were built by the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Railroad. The original line was to connect Indianapolis to Lawrenceburgh (spelling at the time), and 90 miles of track was built in 1853 for that purpose. When the company decided to connect to Cincinnati, the two miles between Lawrenceburg and the state line was added in 1870. This short section connected to the Cincinnati & Indiana Railroad, the 21 miles from the state line to Cincinnati, which was built in 1863.

Another line in the Big Four system in Indiana included the Fairland, Franklin & Martinsville (connecting the I&C at Fairland to the Vandalia [PRR] at Martinsville), built by the Cincinnati & Martinsville Railroad (12 miles from Fairland to Franklin in 1866) and the Martinsville & Franklin Railroad, built as a feeder road the to the Madison & Indianapolis in 1853 (26 miles). This line was purchased by the Big Four on 16 June 1915. During WWII, the section of the line connecting Trafalgar to Martinsville was abandoned. In 1950, that abandonment was increased, this time all the way back to Franklin.

The Columbus, Hope and Greensburg Railroad, which connected the PRR at Columbus to the Big Four Cincinnati line at Greensburg was a leased and operated line by the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Chicago. This lease started with the beginning of operation in May 1884. Stock ownership of the 24 mile line by the Big Four made it part of the NYC system after the ICC reports of World War I. At the time of those reports, the CH&G was still, technically, a separate line.

Numerous other lines fell into the New York Central system via the Big Four. The Peoria & Eastern, a line that connected Peoria, Illinois, with Springfield, Ohio, via Indianapolis was one of these lines. The P&E was leased to the Big Four, but the section east of Indianapolis was flat out given to the CCC&StL. So the P&E consisted only of the trackage west of Indianapolis. In this way, the P&E pretty much stayed a separate company until the NYC consolidations of the 1930s.

Ultimately, the Big Four had trackage in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. When the Big Four was finally consolidated into the New York Central, this led to several lines that were duplicates for the NYC. This happened mainly in northern Indiana where the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern had been operating. The LS&MS had already been consolidated into the NYC in 1914. The Big Four, prior to becoming an official part of the NYC, had connections with it in numerous places along the “Water Level Route” between Chicago and Cleveland.

* Both the Pennsylvania and the New York Central ceased to independently exist on 1 February, 1968. On that day, the two giants merged to become the Pennsylvania New York Central Transportation Company, known colloquially as the Penn Central. [Technically, the Pennsylvania Railroad changed its name to Penn Central as it absorbed the New York Central. This was a sore subject to most NYC management in the end.] The end of the Penn Central came on 1 April 1976, when five of the bankrupt northeast railroad companies were merged to create the Consolidated Rail Corporation, or Conrail. Or at least, most of them. Not all of the properties owned by the Penn Central became part of Conrail. Indiana was pruned quite a bit by what was and was not accepted into Conrail.)